It is a long established fact that a reader of a page when looking at its layout.

    SMARTVascular Dx

    1. Acute Coronary Syndrome
      1. ACS MI Clinical Chacteristics
        1. Eisen A, Giugliano RP, Braunwald E. Updates on Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Review. JAMA Cardiol. 2016;1(6):718–730. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.2049
        2. Yeh, R. W. et al. Population trends in the incidence and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction. N. Engl. J. Med. 362, 2155–2165. (2010).
    1. A Maziar Zafari, Myocardial Infarction, Medscape, 9.15.2015
    2. Dracup K. The Challenge of Reducing Prehospital Delay in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome
    3. Tisminetzky M, et al. Identification and Characteristics of Low-Risk Survivors of an Acute Myocardial Infarction. Published:March 01, 2016DOI:
    1. ACS Pathophysiology
      1. Filippo Crea, Giovanna Liuzzo,Pathogenesis of Acute Coronary Syndromes, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Volume 61, Issue 1, 2013, Pages 1-11, ISSN 0735-1097,
      2. Wang E Y, et al. Causes and Predictors of Death in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease (from the Heart and Soul Study), Published:September 29, 2016DOI:
    2. ACS Plaque Erosion
      1. Kolte D, Libby P, Jang I. New Insights Into Plaque Erosion as a Mechanism of Acute Coronary Syndromes. JAMA. 2021;325(11):1043–1044. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.0069
    3. Acute Coronary Syndromes MI
      1. Anderson J L, Morrow D A, Acute Myocardial Infarction, N Engl J Med 2017; 376:2053-2064 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1606915
      2. Smyth A, et al. Physical Activity and Anger or Emotional Upset as Triggers of Acute Myocardial Infarction, 11 Oct 2016 2016;134:1059–1067
    1. McCarthy CP, Vaduganathan M, Januzzi JL. Type 2 Myocardial Infarction—Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment. JAMA. 2018;320(5):433–434. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.7125
    2. Greenslade JH, Nayer R, Parsonage W, et alValidating the Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) and Troponin-only Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (T-MACS) rules for the prediction of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting to the emergency department with chest painEmergency Medicine Journal 2017;34:517-523.
    1. Cardiac Rehab
      1. Smedegaard L, et al. “Return to work and risk of subsequent detachment from employment after myocardial infarction: insights from danish nationwide registries” JAHA 2017; DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.117.006486.
    2. Coronary Plaque Disruption
      1. Falk E. et al. Coronary Plaque Disruption, Circulation. 1995;92:657-671
    3. Microvascular Obstruction
      1. Filippo Crea, Coronary Microvascular Obstruction – A Puzzle With Many Pieces, N Engl J Med 2015; 372:1464-1465 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe1501882
      2. Balady G J, et al. Clinician’s Guide to Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Adults, Jun 2010 2010;122:191–225
    1. Chaudhry S, et al. Exercise-Induced Myocardial Ischemia Detected by Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing, January 20, 2009 DOI:
    1. NSAIDS and ACS
      1. Bally, Michèle, et al. Risk of acute myocardial Infarction with NSAIDs in real world use: Bayesian meta-analysis of individual patient data.” BMJ. 2017;357: j1909. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j1909
    2. Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI)
      1. Marfella R, Sardu C, Calabro P, et al. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes with non-obstructive coronary artery stenosis: Effects of incretin treatment [published online September 26, 2017]. Diabetes Obes Metab
    3. Silent Heart Attacks
      1. Turkbey EB, Nacif MS, Guo M, et al. Prevalence and Correlates of Myocardial Scar in a US Cohort. JAMA. 2015;314(18):1945–1954. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.14849
    4. Alcoholism & CAD
      1. Lyon J. More Treatments on Deck for Alcohol Use Disorder. JAMA. 2017;317(22):2267–2269. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.4760
    5. Angiography IVUS MRI CTA
      1. Cardiac Imaging Comparative Radiation 2015
      2. Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA)
        1. Min, James K et al. “All-cause mortality benefit of coronary revascularization vs. medical therapy in patients without known coronary artery disease undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography: results from CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography Eva
        2. The SCOT-HEART Investigators, Coronary CT Angiography and 5-Year Risk of Myocardial Infarction, September 6, 2018, N Engl J Med 2018; 379:924-933, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1805971
    1. CVD MRI
      1. Greenwood, John P et al. “Effect of Care Guided by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy, or NICE Guidelines on Subsequent Unnecessary Angiography Rates: The CE-MARC 2 Randomized Clinical Trial.” JAMA vol. 316,10 (2016): 1051-60. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.12680
    2. Asymptomatic Heart Disase
      1. Maddox TM, Stanislawski MA, Grunwald GK, et al. Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease and Risk of Myocardial Infarction. 2014;312(17):1754–1763. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.14681
    3. Atherosclerosis
      1. Atherosclerosis General
        1. Keaney, John F Jr. “CHIP-ping Away at Atherosclerosis.” The New England journal of medicine vol. 377,2 (2017): 184-185. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1706173
      2. Total Chronic Occlusion
        1. Shah, Pinak B. “Management of coronary chronic total occlusion.” Circulation vol. 123,16 (2011): 1780-4. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.972802
      3. Atrial Fib/ Arrythmia
        1. Abed, Hany S et al. “Effect of weight reduction and cardiometabolic risk factor management on symptom burden and severity in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomized clinical trial.” JAMA vol. 310,19 (2013): 2050-60. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.280521
        2. Ben Freedman, S, and Nicole Lowres. “Asymptomatic Atrial Fibrillation: The Case for Screening to Prevent Stroke.” JAMA vol. 314,18 (2015): 1911-2. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.9846
      4. CAD Positive Remodeling
        1. Galal, Haitham et al. “Detection of positively remodeled coronary artery lesions by multislice CT and its impact on cardiovascular future events.” The Egyptian heart journal : (EHJ) : official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology vol. 71,1 26. 2
      5. CAD/ Oxidative Stress
        1. Ischemic Heart Disease
          1. Vítek, Libor et al. “Gilbert syndrome and ischemic heart disease: a protective effect of elevated bilirubin levels.” Atherosclerosis vol. 160,2 (2002): 449-56. doi:10.1016/s0021-9150(01)00601-3
        2. Oxidative Stress and CAD
          1. Huang, Huiling et al. “The oxidation ratio of LDL: a predictor for coronary artery disease.” Disease markers vol. 24,6 (2008): 341-9. doi:10.1155/2008/371314
        3. Calcium Scores
          1. Carr, John Jeffrey et al. “Association of Coronary Artery Calcium in Adults Aged 32 to 46 Years With Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Death.” JAMA cardiology vol. 2,4 (2017): 391-399. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.5493
          2. Youssef, George, and Matthew J Budoff. “Coronary artery calcium scoring, what is answered and what questions remain.” Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy vol. 2,2 (2012): 94-105. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2223-3652.2012.06.04

    SMARTInflammation Dx

    1. Allergies
      1. Szépfalusi Z, Ebner C, Pandjaitan R, Orlicek F, Scheiner O, Boltz-Nitulescu G, Kraft D, Ebner H. Egg yolk alpha-livetin (chicken serum albumin) is a cross-reactive allergen in the bird-egg syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994 May;93(5):932-42. doi: 10.1
    2. Alzheimer’s
      1. Ngandu T, Lehtisalo J, Solomon A, Levälahti E, Ahtiluoto S, Antikainen R, Bäckman L, Hänninen T, Jula A, Laatikainen T, Lindström J, Mangialasche F, Paajanen T, Pajala S, Peltonen M, Rauramaa R, Stigsdotter-Neely A, Strandberg T, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Jun 6;385(9984):2255-63. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60461-5. Epub 2015 Mar 12. PMID: 25771249.
      2. Mendonca P, et al. The attenuating effects of 1,2,3,4,6 penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose on inflammatory cytokines release from activated BV-2 microglial cells, January 18, 2017DOI:
      3. Elwood P, et al. Healthy Lifestyles Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases and Dementia: Evidence from the Caerphilly Cohort Study, Published: December 9, 2013
      4. Weiner MF. Perspective on race and ethnicity in Alzheimer’s disease research. Alzheimers Dement. 2008 Jul;4(4):233-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2007.10.016. Epub 2007 Dec 21. PMID: 18631972; PMCID: PMC2570194.
    3. Blood Pressure
      1. Wu, Jun et al. “A summary of the effects of antihypertensive medications on measured blood pressure.” American journal of hypertension vol. 18,7 (2005): 935-42. doi:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2005.01.011
      2. Pruijm, M et al. “Inflammatory markers and blood pressure: sex differences and the effect of fat mass in the CoLaus Study.” Journal of human hypertension vol. 27,3 (2013): 169-75. doi:10.1038/jhh.2012.12
    4. Endothelium
      1. Hadi, Hadi A R et al. “Endothelial dysfunction: cardiovascular risk factors, therapy, and outcome.” Vascular health and risk management vol. 1,3 (2005): 183-98.
      2. Gimbrone, Michael A. “The Gordon Wilson lecture. Understanding vascular endothelium: a pilgrim’s progress. Endothelial dysfunction, biomechanical forces and the pathobiology of atherosclerosis.” Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association vol. 121 (2010): 115-27; discussion 127.
      3. Forsyth, K D et al. “Endothelial serpins–protectors of the vasculature?.” Clinical and experimental immunology vol. 95,2 (1994): 277-82. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.1994.tb06523.x
      4. Castellon, Xavier, and Vera Bogdanova. “Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Endothelial Dysfunction.” Aging and disease vol. 7,1 81-9. 2 Jan. 2016, doi:10.14336/AD.2015.0803
      5. Su, Jin Bo. “Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment.” World journal of cardiology vol. 7,11 (2015): 719-41. doi:10.4330/wjc.v7.i11.719
    5. Diabetes
      1. Gibbons, Raymond J. “Optimal medical therapy vs CT angiography screening for patients with diabetes.” JAMA vol. 312,21 (2014): 2219-20. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.15958
      2. Muhlestein, Joseph B et al. “Effect of screening for coronary artery disease using CT angiography on mortality and cardiac events in high-risk patients with diabetes: the FACTOR-64 randomized clinical trial.” JAMA vol. 312,21 (2014): 2234-43. doi:10.1001/
      3. Seaquist, Elizabeth R. “Addressing the burden of diabetes.” JAMA vol. 311,22 (2014): 2267-8. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.6451
      4. Tancredi, Mauro et al. “Excess Mortality among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes.” The New England journal of medicine vol. 373,18 (2015): 1720-32. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1504347
    6. Family History
      1. Kolber, Michael R, and Cathy Scrimshaw. “Family history of cardiovascular disease.” Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien vol. 60,11 (2014): 1016.
      2. Suh, Beomseok et al. “Family history of coronary heart disease is more strongly associated with coronary than with carotid atherosclerosis in healthy asymptomatic adults.” Atherosclerosis vol. 233,2 (2014): 584-589. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.01.0
      3. Qureshi, Nadeem et al. “Effect of adding systematic family history enquiry to cardiovascular disease risk assessment in primary care: a matched-pair, cluster randomized trial.” Annals of internal medicine vol. 156,4 (2012): 253-62. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-1
    7. Inflammation/ Autoimmune Disease
      1. Aday, Aaron W, and Paul M Ridker. “Antiinflammatory Therapy in Clinical Care: The CANTOS Trial and Beyond.” Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine vol. 5 62. 5 Jun. 2018, doi:10.3389/fcvm.2018.00062
      2. Ridker, Paul M et al. “Antiinflammatory Therapy with Canakinumab for Atherosclerotic Disease.” The New England journal of medicine vol. 377,12 (2017): 1119-1131. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1707914
      3. Harrington, Robert A. “Targeting Inflammation in Coronary Artery Disease.” The New England journal of medicine vol. 377,12 (2017): 1197-1198. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1709904
      4. MA3RS Study Investigators. “Aortic Wall Inflammation Predicts Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Expansion, Rupture, and Need for Surgical Repair.” Circulation vol. 136,9 (2017): 787-797. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.028433
    8. Insulin Resistance
      1. Alessi, Marie-Christine et al. “Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, adipose tissue and insulin resistance.” Current opinion in lipidology vol. 18,3 (2007): 240-5. doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e32814e6d29



    1. Biomarkers General
      1. Wildman, R P et al. “Adipocytokine and ghrelin levels in relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors in women at midlife: longitudinal associations.” International journal of obesity (2005) vol. 32,5 (2008): 740-8. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803782
      2. Ardigo, Diego et al. “Circulating chemokines accurately identify individuals with clinically significant atherosclerotic heart disease.” Physiological genomics vol. 31,3 (2007): 402-9. doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00104.2007
      3. Libby, Peter, and Kevin King. “Biomarkers: A Challenging Conundrum in Cardiovascular Disease.” Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology vol. 35,12 (2015): 2491-5. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305233
      4. Gallino, Augusto. “The utility of emerging biomarkers and imaging for assessment of cardiovascular risk.” Current vascular pharmacology vol. 10,6 (2012): 712-4. doi:10.2174/157016112803520873
      5. Robb, Melissa A et al. “Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints: Developing Common Terminology and Definitions.” JAMA vol. 315,11 (2016): 1107-8. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.2240
      6. Moe, Kyaw Thu, and Philip Wong. “Current trends in diagnostic biomarkers of acute coronary syndrome.” Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore vol. 39,3 (2010): 210-5.
      7. Kleiner, Giulio et al. “Cytokine levels in the serum of healthy subjects.” Mediators of inflammation vol. 2013 (2013): 434010. doi:10.1155/2013/434010
      8. Lovely, Rehana S et al. “Gamma’ fibrinogen: evaluation of a new assay for study of associations with cardiovascular disease.” Clinical chemistry vol. 56,5 (2010): 781-8. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2009.138347
      9. Cerasola, Giovanni et al. “The progressive pathway of microalbuminuria: from early marker of renal damage to strong cardiovascular risk predictor.” Journal of hypertension vol. 28,12 (2010): 2357-69. doi:10.1097/HJH.0b013e32833ec377
      10. Orem, Cihan et al. “Plasma fibronectin level and its association with coronary artery disease and carotid intima-media thickness.” Coronary artery disease vol. 14,3 (2003): 219-24. doi:10.1097/01.mca.0000066454.28270.fb
    2. Cardiac Stress Biomarkers
      1. Gopal, Deepa M et al. “Biomarkers of cardiovascular stress and subclinical atherosclerosis in the community.” Clinical chemistry vol. 60,11 (2014): 1402-8. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2014.227116
    3. Chemokines
      1. White, Gemma E et al. “CC chemokine receptors and chronic inflammation–therapeutic opportunities and pharmacological challenges.” Pharmacological reviews vol. 65,1 47-89. 8 Jan. 2013, doi:10.1124/pr.111.005074
      2. Kalwitz, Gregor et al. “Chemokine profile of human serum from whole blood: migratory effects of CXCL-10 and CXCL-11 on human mesenchymal stem cells.” Connective tissue research vol. 51,2 (2010): 113-22. doi:10.3109/03008200903111906
      3. Olson, Timothy S, and Klaus Ley. “Chemokines and chemokine receptors in leukocyte trafficking.” American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology vol. 283,1 (2002): R7-28. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00738.2001
      4. Dusi, Veronica et al. “Chemokines and Heart Disease: A Network Connecting Cardiovascular Biology to Immune and Autonomic Nervous Systems.” Mediators of inflammation vol. 2016 (2016): 5902947. doi:10.1155/2016/5902947
      5. Kunkel, Eric J, and Eugene C Butcher. “Chemokines and the tissue-specific migration of lymphocytes.” Immunity vol. 16,1 (2002): 1-4. doi:10.1016/s1074-7613(01)00261-8
      6. Luck, Christian et al. “Differential Regulation of Cardiac Function and Intracardiac Cytokines by Rapamycin in Healthy and Diabetic Rats.” Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity vol. 2017 (2017): 5724046. doi:10.1155/2017/5724046
      7. Speyer, Cecilia L, and Peter A Ward. “Role of endothelial chemokines and their receptors during inflammation.” Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research vol. 24,1 (2011): 18-27. doi:10.3109/08941939.2010.5
      8. Charo, Israel F, and Richard M Ransohoff. “The many roles of chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation.” The New England journal of medicine vol. 354,6 (2006): 610-21. doi:10.1056/NEJMra052723
    4. CTACK
      1. Homey, Bernhard et al. “CCL27-CCR10 interactions regulate T cell-mediated skin inflammation.” Nature medicine vol. 8,2 (2002): 157-65. doi:10.1038/nm0202-157
      2. Morales, J et al. “CTACK, a skin-associated chemokine that preferentially attracts skin-homing memory T cells.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 96,25 (1999): 14470-5. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.25.14470
      3. Schiro, Andrew et al. “Elevated levels of endothelial-derived microparticles, and serum CXCL9 and SCGF-β are associated with unstable asymptomatic carotid plaques.” Scientific reports vol. 5 16658. 13 Nov. 2015, doi:10.1038/srep16658
    5. Eotaxin
      1. Emanuele, Enzo et al. “Association of plasma eotaxin levels with the presence and extent of angiographic coronary artery disease.” Atherosclerosis vol. 186,1 (2006): 140-5. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.07.002
      2. Haley, K J et al. “Overexpression of eotaxin and the CCR3 receptor in human atherosclerosis: using genomic technology to identify a potential novel pathway of vascular inflammation.” Circulation vol. 102,18 (2000): 2185-9. doi:10.1161/01.cir.102.18.2185
      3. Grönberg, Caitríona et al. “Human Carotid Plaques With High Levels of Interleukin-16 Are Associated With Reduced Risk for Cardiovascular Events.” Stroke vol. 46,10 (2015): 2748-54. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009910
    6. Fas Ligand/Fas
      1. Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel et al. “Decreased circulating Fas ligand in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia or carotid atherosclerosis: normalization by atorvastatin.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology vol. 43,7 (2004): 1188-94. doi:1
      2. Askenasy, Nadir et al. “Induction of tolerance using Fas ligand: a double-edged immunomodulator.” Blood vol. 105,4 (2005): 1396-404. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-06-2364
      3. Matute-Bello, G et al. “Soluble Fas ligand induces epithelial cell apoptosis in humans with acute lung injury (ARDS).” Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) vol. 163,4 (1999): 2217-25.
      4. Sahinarslan, Asife et al. “The Relationship of Serum Soluble Fas Ligand (sFasL) Level with the Extent of Coronary Artery Disease.” The International journal of angiology : official publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc vol. 21,1 (2012): 29-34. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1306418
      5. Waring, P, and A Müllbacher. “Cell death induced by the Fas/Fas ligand pathway and its role in pathology.” Immunology and cell biology vol. 77,4 (1999): 312-7. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1711.1999.00837.x
      6. Oyama, Jun-ichi et al. “Continuous positive airway pressure therapy improves vascular dysfunction and decreases oxidative stress in patients with the metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.” Clinical cardiology vol. 35,4 (2012): 231-6. do
      7. Iso, Hiroyasu et al. “Blood soluble Fas levels and mortality from cardiovascular disease in middle-aged Japanese: The JACC study.” Atherosclerosis vol. 260 (2017): 97-101. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.03.020
      8. Nishigaki, K et al. “Plasma Fas ligand, an inducer of apoptosis, and plasma soluble Fas, an inhibitor of apoptosis, in patients with chronic congestive heart failure.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology vol. 29,6 (1997): 1214-20. doi:10.1016/s0
      9. Silvestris, F et al. “Serum elevations of soluble Fas (CD95/apo-I) concur in deregulating T cell apoptosis during active lupus disease.” Clinical and experimental medicine vol. 2,1 (2002): 13-27. doi:10.1007/s102380200002
      10. Konno, R et al. “Serum soluble fas level as a prognostic factor in patients with gynecological malignancies.” Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research vol. 6,9 (2000): 3576-80.
    7. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF)
      1. Jiao, Demin et al. “Curcumin inhibited HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis through regulating c-Met dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in lung cancer.” Molecular therapy oncolytics vol. 3 16018. 3 Aug. 2016, doi:10.1038/mto.2016.18
      2. Schiro, Andrew et al. “Elevated levels of endothelial-derived microparticles, and serum CXCL9 and SCGF-β are associated with unstable asymptomatic carotid plaques.” Scientific reports vol. 5 16658. 13 Nov. 2015, doi:10.1038/srep16658
      3. Bielinski, Suzette J et al. “Hepatocyte growth factor demonstrates racial heterogeneity as a biomarker for coronary heart disease.” Heart (British Cardiac Society) vol. 103,15 (2017): 1185-1193. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2016-310450
      4. Bell, Elizabeth J et al. “Hepatocyte Growth Factor Is Positively Associated With Risk of Stroke: The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).” Stroke vol. 47,11 (2016): 2689-2694. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.014172
      5. Muratsu, Jun et al. “Hepatocyte Growth Factor Prevented High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Improved Insulin Resistance in Mice.” Scientific reports vol. 7,1 130. 9 Mar. 2017, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-00199-4
      6. Wang, Yong et al. “Prognostic significance of circulating levels of hepatocyte growth factor in patients with chagas’ disease and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.” Cardiology vol. 121,4 (2012): 240-6. doi:10.1159/000337080
      7. Schaper, W, and T Kubin. “Is hepatocyte growth factor a protein with cardioprotective activity in the ischemic heart?.” Circulation vol. 95,11 (1997): 2471-2. doi:10.1161/01.cir.95.11.2471
    8. hsCRP
      1. Carrero, Juan Jesus et al. “hsCRP Level and the Risk of Death or Recurrent Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Myocardial Infarction: a Healthcare-Based Study.” Journal of the American Heart Association vol. 8,11 (2019): e012638. doi:10.1161/JAHA.119.0
      2. Hamer, Mark et al. “Association of very highly elevated C-reactive protein concentration with cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality.” Clinical chemistry vol. 56,1 (2010): 132-5. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2009.130740
    9. IL16/Interleukin 1 Beta
      1. Purzycka-Bohdan, Dorota et al. “Assessment of Interleukin 16 Serum Levels and Skin Expression in Psoriasis Patients in Correlation with Clinical Severity of the Disease.” PloS one vol. 11,10 e0165577. 27 Oct. 2016, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0165577
      2. Hai-Feng, Tan et al. “Association between Polymorphisms in IL-16 Genes and Coronary Heart Disease risk.” Pakistan journal of medical sciences vol. 29,4 (2013): 1033-7. doi:10.12669/pjms.294.3650
      3. Grönberg, Caitríona et al. “Human Carotid Plaques With High Levels of Interleukin-16 Are Associated With Reduced Risk for Cardiovascular Events.” Stroke vol. 46,10 (2015): 2748-54. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009910
      4. Roth, S et al. “IL-16 and MIF: messengers beyond neutrophil cell death.” Cell death & disease vol. 7,1 e2049. 14 Jan. 2016, doi:10.1038/cddis.2015.388
    10. Lp-PLA2
      1. Blake, G J et al. “A prospective evaluation of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) levels and the risk of future cardiovascular events in women.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology vol. 38,5 (2001): 1302-6. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(01)01554
      2. Rallidis, Loukianos S et al. “Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) bound on high-density lipoprotein is associated with lower risk for cardiac death in stable coronary artery disease patients: a 3-year follow-up.” Journal of the American College of C
    11. Ceramides
      1. Yu, Jingjia et al. “Ceramide is upregulated and associated with mortality in patients with chronic heart failure.” The Canadian journal of cardiology vol. 31,3 (2015): 357-63. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2014.12.007
      2. Laaksonen, Reijo et al. “Plasma ceramides predict cardiovascular death in patients with stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndromes beyond LDL-cholesterol.” European heart journal vol. 37,25 (2016): 1967-76. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw148
    12. MCP
      1. Park, Byung Lae et al. “Association analysis of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP3) polymorphisms with asthmatic phenotypes.” Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology vol. 38,1 (2005): 77-81. doi:10.5483/bmbrep.2005.38.1.077
      2. Frantz, Stefan, and Matthias Nahrendorf. “Cardiac macrophages and their role in ischaemic heart disease.” Cardiovascular research vol. 102,2 (2014): 240-8. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvu025
      3. Bachelez, Hervé. “Chemokine ligand 7 (CCL7) and innate immune cells in psoriasis: beyond redundancy.” Experimental dermatology vol. 25,4 (2016): 265-6. doi:10.1111/exd.12963
      4. Mosedale, David E et al. “Circulating levels of MCP-1 and eotaxin are not associated with presence of atherosclerosis or previous myocardial infarction.” Atherosclerosis vol. 183,2 (2005): 268-74. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.11.028
      5. Hernandez-Anzaldo, Samuel et al. “Identification of a Novel Heart-Liver Axis: Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Negatively Regulates Cardiac Secreted Phospholipase A2 to Modulate Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation in the Liver.” Journal of the American Heart A
      6. Zhang, Shun et al. “Characterization of monocyte chemoattractant proteins and CC chemokine receptor 2 expression during atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-null mice.” Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis vol. 18,10 (2011): 846-56. doi:10.5551/jat.7211
    13. MicroRNAs
      1. Zhu, Dihan et al. “MicroRNA-17/20a/106a modulate macrophage inflammatory responses through targeting signal-regulatory protein α.” The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology vol. 132,2 (2013): 426-36.e8. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.02.005
      2. Sacco, Jennifer, and Khosrow Adeli. “MicroRNAs: emerging roles in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.” Current opinion in lipidology vol. 23,3 (2012): 220-225. doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e3283534c9f
    14. MPO
      1. Brennan, Marie-Luise et al. “Prognostic value of myeloperoxidase in patients with chest pain.” The New England journal of medicine vol. 349,17 (2003): 1595-604. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa035003
      2. Roman, Raquel Melchior et al. “Prognostic value of myeloperoxidase in coronary artery disease: comparison of unstable and stable angina patients.” Coronary artery disease vol. 21,3 (2010): 129-36. doi:10.1097/MCA.0b013e328333f50d
    15. ProBNP
      1. Nadir, M Adnan et al. “Improving the primary prevention of cardiovascular events by using biomarkers to identify individuals with silent heart disease.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology vol. 60,11 (2012): 960-8. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2012.04.049
    16. TMAO
      1. Getz, Godfrey S, and Catherine A Reardon. “Atherosclerosis: beyond cholesterol.” Current opinion in lipidology vol. 22,6 (2011): 507-8. doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e32834d179e
      2. Senthong, Vichai et al. “Plasma Trimethylamine N-Oxide, a Gut Microbe-Generated Phosphatidylcholine Metabolite, Is Associated With Atherosclerotic Burden.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology vol. 67,22 (2016): 2620-8. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2016.03
    17. Troponin
      1. Adamson, Philip D et al. “Cardiac Troponin I and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology vol. 72,10 (2018): 1126-1137. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2018.06.051
      2. Biener, Moritz et al. “Risk prediction in stable cardiovascular disease using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T single biomarker strategy compared to the ESC-SCORE.” Open heart vol. 5,1 e000710. 25 Apr. 2018, doi:10.1136/openhrt-2017-000710

    Expanded Lipid Profile (ELP)

    1. Lipid Management
      1. Navarese, Eliano P et al. “Association Between Baseline LDL-C Level and Total and Cardiovascular Mortality After LDL-C Lowering: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” JAMA vol. 319,15 (2018): 1566-1579. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.2525
      2. Silverman, Michael G et al. “Association Between Lowering LDL-C and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Among Different Therapeutic Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” JAMA vol. 316,12 (2016): 1289-97. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.13985
    2. Apolipoproteins
      1. Sniderman, Allan et al. “Non-HDL C equals apolipoprotein B: except when it does not!.” Current opinion in lipidology vol. 21,6 (2010): 518-24. doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e32833ee80c
      2. Walldius, G, and I Jungner. “The apoB/apoA-I ratio: a strong, new risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a target for lipid-lowering therapy–a review of the evidence.” Journal of internal medicine vol. 259,5 (2006): 493-519. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2
      3. Harper, Charles R, and Terry A Jacobson. “Using apolipoprotein B to manage dyslipidemic patients: time for a change?.” Mayo Clinic proceedings vol. 85,5 (2010): 440-5. doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0517
    3. Cholesterol and CVD Risk
      1. Mozaffarian, Dariush, and David S Ludwig. “Dietary Cholesterol and Blood Cholesterol Concentrations-Reply.” JAMA vol. 314,19 (2015): 2084-5. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.12604
    4. LDL
      1. Navarese, Eliano P et al. “Association Between Baseline LDL-C Level and Total and Cardiovascular Mortality After LDL-C Lowering: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” JAMA vol. 319,15 (2018): 1566-1579. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.2525
      2. Ravnskov, Uffe et al. “Lack of an association or an inverse association between low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review.” BMJ open vol. 6,6 e010401. 12 Jun. 2016, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010401
    5. Lp(a)
      1. Burgess, Stephen et al. “Association of LPA Variants With Risk of Coronary Disease and the Implications for Lipoprotein(a)-Lowering Therapies: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.” JAMA cardiology vol. 3,7 (2018): 619-627. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2018.1470
    6. sdLDL
      1. Srisawasdi, Pornpen et al. “Estimation of plasma small dense LDL cholesterol from classic lipid measures.” American journal of clinical pathology vol. 136,1 (2011): 20-9. doi:10.1309/AJCPLHJBGG9L3ILS
    7. Triglycerides
      1. Khetarpal, Sumeet A, and Daniel J Rader. “Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and coronary artery disease risk: new insights from human genetics.” Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology vol. 35,2 (2015): e3-9. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.305172
    8. VLDL Triglycerides
      1. Liu, Jian et al. “Non-high-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and their risk predictive values in coronary heart disease.” The American journal of cardiology vol. 98,10 (2006): 1363-8. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.06.032

    SMARTLung Dx

    1. Gould, Michael K et al. “A clinical model to estimate the pretest probability of lung cancer in patients with solitary pulmonary nodules.” Chest 131,2 (2007): 383-8. doi:10.1378/chest.06-1261
    2. Meza, Rafael et al. “Lung cancer incidence trends by gender, race and histology in the United States, 1973-2010.” PloS one vol. 10,3 e0121323. 30 Mar. 2015, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121323
    3. Kratz, Johannes R et al. “A practical molecular assay to predict survival in resected non-squamous, non-small-cell lung cancer: development and international validation studies.” Lancet (London, England) vol. 379,9818 (2012): 823-32. doi:10.1016/S0140-673
    4. Woodard, Gavitt A et al. “Adjuvant Chemotherapy Guided by Molecular Profiling and Improved Outcomes in Early Stage, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.” Clinical lung cancer vol. 19,1 (2018): 58-64. doi:10.1016/j.cllc.2017.05.015
    5. Huo, Jinhai et al. “Complication Rates and Downstream Medical Costs Associated With Invasive Diagnostic Procedures for Lung Abnormalities in the Community Setting.” JAMA internal medicine vol. 179,3 (2019): 324-332. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.6277
    6. Lokhandwala, Tasneem et al. “Costs of Diagnostic Assessment for Lung Cancer: A Medicare Claims Analysis.” Clinical lung cancer vol. 18,1 (2017): e27-e34. doi:10.1016/j.cllc.2016.07.006
    7. National Lung Screening Trial Research Team et al. “Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening.” The New England journal of medicine vol. 365,5 (2011): 395-409. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1102873
    8. Gould, Michael K et al. “Recent Trends in the Identification of Incidental Pulmonary Nodules.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine vol. 192,10 (2015): 1208-14. doi:10.1164/rccm.201505-0990OC
    9. Evans, C et al. “The incidence and causes of postoperative jaundice. A prospective study.” British journal of anaesthesia vol. 46,7 (1974): 520-5. doi:10.1093/bja/46.7.520

    SMARTKidney Dx

    1. Cooper SJ, Tun HW, Roper SM, Kim Y, Kislinger T, et al. (2012) Current Status of Biomarker Discovery in Human clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. J Mol Biomark Diagn S2:005. doi:10.4172/2155-9929.S2-005
    2. Cooper, Simon J et al. “Reexpression of tumor suppressor, sFRP1, leads to antitumor synergy of combined HDAC and methyltransferase inhibitors in chemoresistant cancers.” Molecular cancer therapeutics vol. 11,10 (2012): 2105-15. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-1
    3. Leung, Janet Y, and William Y Kim. “Stearoyl co-A desaturase 1 as a ccRCC therapeutic target: death by stress.” Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research vol. 19,12 (2013): 3111-3. doi:10.1158/1078-0432
    4. Gumz, Michelle L et al. “Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 loss contributes to tumor phenotype of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.” Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research vol. 13,16 (2007): 4740-9.
    5. von Roemeling, Christina A et al. “Preclinical evaluation of the mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus, in combination with the epothilone B analog, ixabepilone in renal cell carcinoma.” American journal of cancer research 3,4 390-401. 14 Aug. 2013
    6. Neely, Benjamin A et al. “Proteotranscriptomic Analysis Reveals Stage Specific Changes in the Molecular Landscape of Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.” PloS one vol. 11,4 e0154074. 29 Apr. 2016, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154074
    7. Tun, Han W et al. “Pathway signature and cellular differentiation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.” PloS one vol. 5,5 e10696. 18 May. 2010, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010696
    8. von Roemeling, Christina A et al. “Neuronal pentraxin 2 supports clear cell renal cell carcinoma by activating the AMPA-selective glutamate receptor-4.” Cancer research vol. 74,17 (2014): 4796-810. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-0210
    9. von Roemeling, Christina A et al. “Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 is a novel molecular therapeutic target for clear cell renal cell carcinoma.” Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research vol. 19,9 (2013): 236
    10. von Roemeling, Christina A et al. “Accelerated bottom-up drug design platform enables the discovery of novel stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 inhibitors for cancer therapy.” Oncotarget 9,1 3-20. 6 Oct. 2017, doi:10.18632/oncotarget.21545